The productivity of winter wheat depends on different factors. To take the good crop of grain-crops, farmers need correctly to pick up sorts, process soil, delete weeds, use fertilizers and watch after soil terms. Sowing a winter wheat, it is needed to adhere to existent agrotechnical recommendations. Only in this case and at careful care shoots will be able to remain during all vegetation periods of cereals.
Sowing of winter wheat. What technologies are applied by agrarians?
Very often to the proprietors farmers have to sow a winter crop under trying conditions. A burning sun, drought and other unfavorable climatic factors, become reasons of the subzero productivity often. That by the tilled field it was easier to manage, and on results work to get a high profit, agrarians give preference to innovative technologies of landing. Primary purpose of their application – receipt of high harvest of the sown cereals.
Most widespread classic agrarian technology of till of winter wheat is considered. She passes in the next stages:
- Preparation of planting-stock. First the employees of farmer enterprises engage in sorting of seed. Thus, they use the methods of incrustations and heat treatment. It is settled to process a planting-stock growth factors, quality and safety of that confirmed by corresponding certificates.
- Determination of the optimal sowing. Seed land on a chart that depends on climatic terms. In cold regions, landing begins in the second half of August, in warm regions she can delay to the middle of October.
At the calculation of terms of sowing of winter crops farmers take into account the average daily temperature of air. If she during a few days holds out on a mark +15 degrees, it serves as a signal for the beginning of sowing campaign. Adhering to this principle, it is possible to obtain the high indexes of the productivity. The seed of winter crops grows and develop in pairs during a 45-50 twenty-four hours. As soon as the average daily temperature of air decides on +5 degrees, the rates of vegetation processes are slowed. Following 4-5 weeks they grow and develop, using a pair and “free” predecessors. If landing terms are certain correctly, a farmer can count on that his plants well will gain a foothold in soil, easily will collect vegetative mass, easily will carry a winter in the field terms. Thus indexes of the productivity and firmness to the infections will be high.
Choice of landing method. At doing up sowing material in soil the employees of farms apply ordinary, cross or narrow-row methodology.
Preparing grains, choosing a term and method of sowing, farmers proceed to the depth-finding of landing, and also count the expense of sowing material on 1 ha of the field.
What principles is a care built on of sowing of winter wheat?
Seeing the field, sown by a winter wheat, the workers of farms conduct different technological operations. As soon as a sowing campaign is completed, they proceed to rolling up of seed. To this measure comes running then, when an autumn is accompanied by a drought and high winds. She:
- improves the contact of seed with soil substrate,
- detains moisture in substrate and does not give to her to evaporate,
- provides the simultaneous plant let of seed on the fields.
If it rains constantly in autumn, rolling up of shoots is economically inadvisable. At natural humidity air sowing material will climb single-handed.
Setting of vegetable wings (protections) for detention of snow – agrotechnical measures that farmers apply also often. With her help it is succeeded to protect the sprouts of winter wheat from the first frosts. Vegetable protections assist forming of dense snow-drifts in a 15-25 cm thick, that come forward as a thermal pillow.
In spring, when comes it is time to exterminate weeds and loosen soil, agrarians proceed to harrowing. To that end they use the harrows – instruments that make light the superficial layer of soil.
That plants collected vegetative mass, farmers need to create favorable terms for this purpose. For prevention of thinning and lodging on the stage of busting they are processed by solution of turn. Procedure is repeated, when 3-4 appears not.
Bringing of the additional fertilizing and treatment of sowing
Artificial and organic fertilizers – additions that fill in the supply of valuable substances in soil. If weeds appear on substrate, for suppression of their development farmers process the fields “Basagran”, “Dialen”, “Lontrel” and by other herbicides. Besides it, fungicide treatment that does not give to spread to the infections and wreckers is conducted. As fungicides come forward:
- ”Bayleton” and “Tilt”, protecting from a blight;
- ”Sumicidin” and “Decis”, devastating larvae of wreckers;
- ”Fundazol”, impedimental to appearance of farinaceous dew.
Only at the correct calculation of terms of sowing of winter wheat, observance of technology and careful care it is possible to count on the high productivity and profit from farmer activity.