Grain-crops – product, used in a pacification, waveguides and groats. In addition, on their basis produce the concentrated and rough forage that is used in a stock-raising. Not surprising, that considerable part of agricultural lands is taken exactly under sowing of grain-crops. What more harvest, than more forage, food and technical necessities are able to cover the state. To defend oneself from the subzero productivity that happens at unfavorable climatic terms, farmers sow present agricultural areas the different types of grain.
Types of grain-crops
Under grain-crops understand plants that a man tills for the sake of receipt of grain. According to scientific researches, it is begun to do yet in deep antiquity. For example, if rice it was begun to grow in III millennium B.C., wheat – as early as VII millennium B.C. Already then grains were known for the food value. Scientists found out now, that in them there are squirrel, carbohydrates, vitamins, pro vitamins and enzymes.
Distinguish a few types of grain-crops:
- cereal – group the pantry sorts of plants (wheat, oat, barley, rye, corn, rice, millet, rape) are included in that;
- leguminous (peas, kidney bean, soy);
- buckwheat (buckwheat).
Unlike vegetables and fruit, for growing of grain-crops it is not needed to create hothouse terms. It simplifies a management process we weed, saves material, labor and temporal resources.
Winter wheat – cereals that differs in the nourishing value of grains and productivity. In addition, she carries a seasonal drop in a temperature well, that distinguishes her from a spring wheat. In spite of the fact that this one-year plant, exactly to his thicket all is landed by farmers.
As a rule, a winter wheat years begin to sow in closing dates or at the beginning of autumn. In November, she gives breeds the vegetation of that lasts from a winter to the first weeks of spring already. As compared to a spring culture, crop is here taken the far before.
Every year NT of selection of winter wheat is inculcated and improve. It allowed to distinguish a few sorts that spread on world farms. Among them:
- ”Favourite”. A sort differs in mildness and firmness to the frosts, but by subzero firmness to the drought. With 1 ha of the field it is possible to collect 96-107 centner grains.
- ”Antonovka”. The difference of this sort is high-rate of ripening. A vegetation period for him lasts at most 285 days. Thus, he gives a good harvest at any terms, regardless of level of humidity and temperature.
- ”Shestopalovka”. This sort differs in an unpretentiousness, firmness to subzero humidity, frost, infections, lodging wheat and getting too ripe. With 1 ha of the field farmers collect to 8,5 centner grains.
That, how many finish good will remain in the total, does not depend on the productivity. After collection of grain exposed to cleaning. Farmers process them on modern equipment that helps to bring down the volume of wastes.
Barley – plant, that is one-year, two-year and long-term. In the conditions of our country farmers till a both spring and winter-annual culture. However, a preference gives oneself up to the winter-annual barley. As a rule, he ripens quicker, that allows before to store harvest and use the cleared fields for landing of other culture. Thus, farmers take the crop two times in a year. To get yet more finish good, not loosening the productive holds, they use on the fields a technique that conducts post-harvest treatment of grains.
Barley – cereals that carries subzero temperatures badly. Sudden ground frosts can become a reason of wipe out of harvest. But a barley differs in firmness to subzero humidity and heat, therefore he is usually tilled in south regions. Thus use next sorts:
- ”Vakula”. On condition of the abundant watering a sort allows getting to 90 centner grains with 1 ha of agricultural area.
- ”Viscount”. Feed barley used in the production of the mixed fodders and forage mixtures for a stock-raising, and also in brewing (on condition of corresponding care). With 1 ha of the field farmers get to 70 ц grains.
- ”Priazovsky”. Spring barley, that carries subzero humidity, and also wreckers, midget blight and farinaceous dew well. With 1 ha of earth farms get at most 63 ц of quality grain.
To obtain the high productivity of the tilled cereals, in the process of landing it is not needed to conduct deifying.
Oat – cereals, different firmness to influence of negative factors. His grains are provided with a high nourishing value and rich vitamin-mineral composition. Confessed the most popular sorts:
- ”Lefty”. A sort differs in firmness to subzero humidity and temperature, and also to illness, caused by fungus in the charred log.
- ”Fighter”. Most valuable sort of oat that carries a drought and wheat lodging well. Sow him mainly in drought districts, and at the end of vegetation almost 31 ц get with 1 ha of the field. To increase a harvest and protect it from infections, fat land, good agrotechnics and timely treatment, is required.
- ”Komes”. This sort of oat can be grown practically on any soil. For the high productivity treatment of substrate is required mineral fertilizers.
For the receipt of good harvest of oat farms actively contest with weeds, destroy wreckers and conduct other events. If here they land the seed of narrow-row or cross method, it helps to increase a landing norm almost on 15%.