Practical aspects of using a new grain crop
Dremlyuk Grigory Kupriyanovich, SGI d. Sc., chief researcher;
Vereshchinsky Alexander Pavlovich, Ph.D., Chairman of the Board, Ukragroprod JSC.
Moscow. Magazine “Bread Products” No. 11 (November) 2000
Reviewed at VNIIZ.
Cereals and food concentrates based on them, like bread, are traditionally the most consumed food products. However, their range, produced by domestic manufacturers, remains unchanged for many years, and the quality in many respects does not meet modern requirements.
Meanwhile, scientists at the Breeding and Genetics Institute (Odessa) have long synthesized a new grain crop called “soriz”, which provides qualitatively new types of cereals, both for direct consumption and for the production of food concentrates that meet the requirements of market novelty.
The new crop was obtained through the practical implementation of theoretical premises about the possibility of distant hybridization between bread sorghum and rice grain forms. The first hybrids obtained could not satisfy the problem of creating an unpretentious, technologically advanced and productive crop capable of producing high-value grain. In the process of selecting the best genotypes, many characteristics had to be changed and adjusted, from the architectonics of plants to the chemical composition of grain and the color of cereals.The work carried out made it possible to create an original source material on the basis of which the first varieties were obtained that organically combined the vitality of sorghum, the nutritional qualities of rice and the best technological qualities of corn.. In 1995, one of our best varieties at that time, Odessky-302, confirmed its advantages and was recognized national standard of Ukraine.
Our modern varieties, which have passed State tests, have a high level of self-renewing heterososis, are not inferior in productivity to hybrids and differ widely in the characteristics of their individual characteristics. In particular, the requirements for a variety of grain characteristics are dictated by the results of research on the creation of optimal processing technologies and use in various most promising areas.
The grain of the currently produced varieties has a light yellow color, a round-oval shape and dimensions of 3.5-4.0 mm. In terms of its structure, the grain is naked (filmicness 10-15%), contains fruit and seed coats, a thin alerone layer, glassy endosperm, and a developed embryo, accounting for 4-5% of the grain weight. The main physical and technological characteristics, as well as the chemical composition of the grain are given in table. 1 and 2.
Table1. Physical and technological characteristics of grain
The conditions for the procurement and use of soriz grain for food purposes, as well as the requirements for the quality of finished products, are regulated by the regulatory framework developed by us and approved by the Ministry of Health of Ukraine.
By improving a number of fragments of the technology for the production of numbered grain from wheat (barley), we have adopted a scheme and found modes that make it possible to produce grinded and polished grain (kernel), as well as crushed three-dimensional grain for direct use as food. At the same time, when producing cereals as raw materials for the production of food concentrates, we use additional enrichment processes, which allows us to achieve the required values of some parameters required for the standards of such products.
The produced cereal is distinguished by a uniform pale or bright yellow color (a marker of soriz cereal) and almost complete glassiness. Depending on the crop variety, cereals contain: protein 9-14%, starch 75-80%, surpass all known cereals in potassium and manganese content, and in the total content of essential amino acids – wheat, corn, rice. Along with significant biological and taste qualities, the most important advantages of cereals include high manufacturability, which ensures its versatility and breadth of use.
Cereals from culinary grains, after cooking until ready, acquire a crumbly consistency, have a snow-white color and a taste close to rice. This grain makes delicious soups, side dishes, as well as pilaf, cabbage rolls, etc. Like rice, soriz grain contains a lot of easily digestible carbohydrates, little fiber and has a minimal effect on the digestive glands, which allows it to be used for children’s, dietary and geriatric nutrition.The specific structure of the starch of individual varieties of soriz when producing breakfast cereals from them by extrusion allows processes to be carried out at minimal temperatures, pressure and humidity, ensuring a high degree of swelling. The extrudate takes on a highly porous, tender and crispy texture even when low-starch and high-protein raw materials are used as part of the components. In addition, the extrudate of soriza cereal does not contain a grainy taste inherent in the extrudate of any other crop, and has a neutral white color, which allows the use of any dyes and flavoring additives without disturbing their color and taste perception.
Industrial testing carried out by us at food concentrate enterprises has shown that sory grains can be successfully used in the production of such breakfast cereals as sticks, bars, curly products, snacks, flakes, petals, popped grains, puffed grains like “popcorn”. The listed products, produced on the basis of soriz grain, are distinguished by high quality, reasonable prices and bring new facets of consumer perception.