General Director of Ltd «OLIS», Ph.D. Vereshchynsky A.P.
Some agro-industrial enterprises and holding companies, having succeeded in matters of grain production, seeking to establish or expand its recycling. Often in their field of view falls mill production to develop a variety of wheat flour. Our observations show that most leaders, mastered this new form of business for themselves, prone to mistakes in choosing effective means to implement it. Flour production is characterized by profound specificity, going far beyond the tales of managers on the sale of a manufacturer. In this article we will still try without much introduction into the technological aspects to clarify at least the basic organizational and technical approaches to creating a successful mill production.
In Soviet times, the development of millers, as one of the main components of food security, has been given great importance. At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union, our flour milling industry, as neither branch of food industry, had the scientific, technical and industrial potential of world level. This was the result started in the 70 years of large-scale rearmament industry. The basis for re-steel equipment and technologies by the Swiss company Buhler. Domestic millers received not only the most advanced means of production from the world leader, but also the rights to their mass reproduction. Our science is supplemented with international experience and has entered the modern frontiers of introductions. However, the basis of millers of mechanics, aerodynamics and chemistry – the science is not new and established. Push technology development and technology milling, which began as we do, and abroad in the postwar years, by the end of the last century has shifted to the level of improvement. Therefore, even at the present time to create a modern, technologically competitive mill production does not necessarily buy imported equipment or involve foreign experts. Both of us still are. As practice shows, mill domestic buildings, as at least three times cheaper than imported plants, with the same performance. Nevertheless, the boom of a hastily settling mini mills, followed by a more tonnage of production, but mainly imported. Among the technically backward, often homemade equipment meet the production and world leaders. However, the vast majority of them also could not ensure sustainable profitability in the refining of our economic conditions. This production, created for other grinding, other wheat, designed for different operating conditions and different results. Thus, a huge payback majority of newly established plants is mandatory, but not the only card-holders for their technical ignorance, as well as over-reliance on sellers of “advanced technology” and “know-how.”
Typically, the initial perception of the mills, most potential investors focused on the production building. Sure, it’s an important part, but only a part of production. Any flour mill, even the smallest performance than the production building (actually the mill) necessarily involves raw materials warehouse, a shop (warehouse) of finished products, laboratory system, operational control and process control system for recording and processing operations with grain. According to its cost of creation, these components are comparable to the cost of production building. However, without any of them successful conduct of the proceedings impossible.
It is known that in order to ensure successful sales of quality of products must meet regulatory requirements and be stable. With respect to flour, this condition can be performed by processing corn with certain stable properties. However, entering his party has always characterized by considerable diversity. Receipt of grain given the characteristics (the grinding of the Party), achieved by mixing in the required proportions of two or three original parties (components). Change in the grinding of the Party of quantity or quality of the components requires a change in modes of processing that is always associated with loss of quality and yield of flour. In this regard, the party must be grinding for a long period of work that requires a reserve source of grain. Thus, the raw materials warehouse must provide reception, separate accommodation, storage and submission in the original production of grain. Its capacity should allow for uninterrupted supply of stable components of the grinding party not less than 10 days of work. Given the need for separate storage of different parties, but the total capacity is an important aspect of the existence of separate containers by number. Warehouse can be either floor type, and the silo (elevator). However, when choosing the type of modern silos made of light steel structures should be preferred silos with conical bottoms. Such silage unloading emptied completely, which does not require manual cleaning after storage of each party. Served in the processing of grain shall not exceed the targets debris. Violation of such rules will inevitably entail a sharp decline in the quality of flour produced. Therefore, the raw materials warehouse preferably equipped with a means purification. Advantage should be given elevator separators, as mill separators inefficient to run in the acceptance of grain.
In the production building (actually the mill) to prepare corn meal and milled to produce finished products – flour and bran. The main stages of preparation include the preparation of grinding party, cleaning of grain and air conditioning (humidification up to a certain moisture content, followed by storage in silos). In the grinding department basis for operations of multiple concurrent sequences of grinding and sifting. The modern trend towards the mill productions aimed at grinding grain for the reduced structure. This requires fewer pieces of equipment, less floor space, electricity, etc., which significantly reduces the costs of establishing and operating. However, the exclusion of a number of technological operations and increased loads on the equipment adversely affects the outcome of treatment. Nevertheless, effective management of such grinding proven practices, although it requires special, especially the careful preparation of grain. On the other hand, it is in the preparation of grain are huge reserves of more effective treatment for any structure of grinding. Therefore, the selection or creation of mill production equipment on the preparation of grain should be given maximum attention.
Industrial grinding process characterized by a hierarchical structure. However, the need for series-parallel processing causes a complex system of continuous movement of multiple streams, which differ both in productivity and quality of the product is. Moving product flows within the specified routes, as well as the possibility of rapid changes in their direction communicates mechanical, pneumatic and gravity transport. The most economical and technically feasible option is a vertically-oriented communication, in which the product goes up and handled, will come from the car in the car by gravity. The minimum number of “ups” and all transport facilities, with a maximum “agility” routes provided by arrangement of the mill in several levels (floors). The arrangement of the mill “high” also creates favorable conditions for effective solution of a number of technical and technological problems, which ultimately affects a substantial improvement of the quality and yield of flour. Practice shows that the production capacity to 100 tons per day. should build up to four, and over 100t/sut- five or more floors. Nevertheless, many mill production are “breadth”. The implementation of such decisions are often motivated by a desire of customers “stick” the production of flour to fit a warehouse or hangar. In some cases, developers are not justified sacrifice floors in order to save carrying building structures. For the implementation of such decisions the owners of these mills are forced to pay their low efficiency.
Between the output of flour and its shipment to the consumer, there are always breaks the time used for the preparation of batches of finished products. Such training can be carried out on several schemes. Low productivity in mills flours formed directly in the production building, and stored before shipment to the warehouse storing the finished product in bags, small containers, and (or) in bulk form. With an increase in mill productivity storing large amounts of flour in the packaging is problematic. Therefore, worked out by grade flour is stored in bulk form, making her sewing bag or packing in small containers just prior to shipping. With this organization of beat freight, packing room and storage of finished products combine to shop the finished product. There are often situations where at the time of grain in the production building is not known what sorts of flour, in what quantities, in what form and when it will be shipped. In such cases it is expedient to remove from the production building multiple streams of flour, store them separately in bulk form and mix with the formation of the required grades as needed. Usually in the shop finished products include flour fortification microadditives and granulation bran. As experience shows, to ensure smooth operation of the mill in today’s economic capacity of the storing facilities shall be designed for not less than 5-6 days of storage of all generated products.
Dependence of the results of grinding a huge number of diverse factors can not fully assume control over the processes of production of flour, even the most modern and sophisticated machines. Technology millers is one of the most complex in the food processing industry and the qualifications of a technology called the old-fashioned grainer – more craft than a profession. Due to the constant and skilled intervention of grainers in grinding process provides a technological regimes at each stage of processing, close to optimal, and as a consequence – the best results. For an objective assessment of the situation grainer need to have qualitative and quantitative indicators of production, which is provided by the organization and systematic execution of laboratory and operational control. Laboratory Control provides industrial technology Laboratory (PTL). Operational control is carried out in the workplace production staff with ensuring the established modes of operations and their effectiveness.
For each shift of production personnel is mandatory accounting work done in compiling the primary records. Results of work are defined at the end of each shift and documented in accordance with the form of the enterprise. However, it must necessarily contain a complete and accurate information about the quantity and quality of grain passed (passed) in the processing, development of (the transfer of a warehouse) of finished products, the performance of packaging, waste management, etc. Preservation of wealth for all phases of displacement in the manufacturing process ensures only their responsible transmission quality (using laboratory control) and number (using the weight of equipment). Defining accurate indicators of the month or carry through a full decade to beg just received in the reporting month of grain from emptying all the bins and stop the production, conducting cleanup.
Trends in the development of domestic millers are caused by the limited extent of the implementation of flour only truly reliable partner – the domestic market. It is quite clear that in such a situation, some millers will be dozens of productions on a national scale, supported by, for example, government contracts or binding to large corporate customers. The second part – the set of productions at regional level capacity from 30 to 150 tons per day. Significantly prevalent in terms of total processing volume. From the standpoint of economic feasibility millers gravitate to places in grain production, which are also the placement of cheaper production facilities and manpower. However, such production is not strongly focused on long-term urban consumers. Given the continuing increase in the cost of transport these trends will be exacerbated. Creating effective and profitable milling industries, taking into account their level of technical complexity and capital intensity is quite “hard nut to crack” as a separate agro-enterprises or holdings, as well as regional business in general. Therefore, the objective of the overwhelming number of mills will be regional leadership, provide further expansion of market access through the creation of production of pasta, bread, fast food, etc. Organizational and technical level of these enterprises must ensure strict minimization of costs of raw materials and energy, maneuvering through several “strong” position of the assortment, timely response to changes in demand and the rapid completion of new product categories.
In conclusion, it should be noted that flour production are complex engineering structures and their need to build on previously developed projects. Level of technical problems to be solved in the process of setting up production, much higher level of competence of “operationers” even the highest caliber. Such work can be groups of professionals possessing deep knowledge of the necessary complex, where the production technology of flour occupy a central place.